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Design-Build (DB): Allocates the fewest obligations and risks to the private sector party.
Design-Build-Finance (DBF): Public agency retains the risk of the project's operations, including issues that may arise because of design and construction defects.
Design-Build-Operate (DBO): Operating a large-scale project often requires a lot of technical expertise and significant investment in personnel that the public agency may not have.
Design-Build-Maintain (DBM): Maintenance of the project can be expensive and being able to shift responsibility for repairs to the private sector party can result in significant cost savings to the public agency.
Design-Build-Operate-Maintain (DBOM): When the public agency is responsible for either operations, management, or both, it may not have the funds available in its annual budget to do so, which may cause the project to fall into disrepair.
Design-Build-Finance-Operate (DBFO): Title to the project remains with the public agency. The private sector party may be paid by the public agency or from fees collected from the project's end users.
Design-Build-Finance-Operate-Maintain (DBFOM): If it is paid by the users, the private sector party also bears demand and revenue risk.
Design-Build-Finance-Operate-Maintain-Transfer (DBFOMT): Private sector owns the asset for the term of the P3 agreement, after which ownership, operations, and maintenance are transferred to the public agency.
Lease, Develop and Operate: Private sector party is typically entitled to receive payments from the public for use of the facility.
Concession: The public agency sells to a private sector party the right to operate and maintain an existing project for a specified time, which can be for as long as 99 years.